Saturday, April 30, 2011
Thursday, April 28, 2011
Way to go Gwen!!
Sunday, April 24, 2011
Tuesday, April 19, 2011
CVI - STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING VISUAL RESPONSES
During activities, introduce object in left to right order. This helps the child to organize his vision and teaches left to right sequencing.
- Use color and movement to get visual attention.
- Use primary colors rather than pastels. (Yellow and red)
- During visual tasks all available energy needs to be used on the task, therefore, all other handicaps must be accommodated for (head control, balance.)
- You can also use verbal cueing. Verbalize what they are seeing if they understand language used.
- Organize the child’s visual world by using good, even illumination.
- Eliminate visual distractions and clutter. Place objects on plain background.
- Use good even illumination.
- Simplify visual information to enhance processing of information.
- Don’t force child to look at your face. Faces may appear aggressive or may overstimulate the child. Overly animated face may cause child to look away.
- Eye contact increases with familiarity, positive situation, and security.
- Eye contact lessens with more complex activities. Too many demands, therefore you need to limit the requirements of the activity.
- Child’s brain needs to organize and understand visual world through consistent, meaningful, and functional activities.
- Presentation of items too close requires focusing which the student may not be able to do.
- Place objects and materials on upright surfaces rather than flat.
- Use a good contrast and highlight when presenting visual information.
- Use common objects. They have more sensory stimulation than plastic objects with few differences other than visual.
- Move hand along table to obtain object and slide it away on the table when done.
- Introduce a new object by pairing it with a familiar activity or introduce a new activity with a familiar object.
- Hold object no closer than 10-14 inches to the child to block out other visual information.
- Place objects against plain background.
- To help child fixate on an object, hold it, tap it or squeeze it. When the child looks at it, shake it.
- To increase shifting gaze behavior, have the child look at one thing then the other. Use two objects at the same time; blink one flashlight, then the other, squeeze one toy, then the other. (Do not flash the light in the child’s eyes.)
- Include the child in the process of getting materials and putting them away. Don’t make things appear and disappear. This will results in a passive or helpless sense.
- Use visual markers to reduce visual stimuli.
- Visual images should be simple in form and presented in isolation to avoid visual overload. Avoid crowding of objects, background clutter.
- Be consistent with colors for containers or backgrounds.
- Children with CVI may not be able to control visual input by attending to important events and suppressing the others. Try tactile cueing to help the child organize their perceptions.
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN WITH CVI
· This is a brain condition not an eye condition. The optic system of the eye is often fine and the eyes appear normal. Non use of vision can be:
· Avoidance behavior when over stimulated
- Protection from perceived threat
- Reaction to non-motivating environment
- Sign of stress
- Lack of recall of similar situations
- A difficulty in sensory integration
· Children often have normal eyes at birth, usually coordinated eye movements.
· Around age 2 they may be diagnosed with optic atrophy due to lack of stimulation. Strabismus may develop with age, if child has difficulties with motoric control.
· Residual vision is variable, inconsistent and fluctuating. The child may have visual field defects.
· Vision fluctuates based on health, strength, fatigue, medications, seizure, and environment (noisy distracting environment).
· Children often shake their head side-to-side trying to find their visual field, attempting to get their visual system going.
· CVI is like looking at an incomplete drawing –you may not see something initially, but when told what it is, you can see it.
· They may need to confirm vision by touching.
· Visual symbols such as the face may be difficult to recognize-may be due to scanning difficulties.
· Children may avoid eye contact. (Gaze avoidance) They might look to either side, look away or be using peripheral vision.
· Short visual attention and visual interest. Children can’t handle too much sensory input. They appear to be daydreaming.
· Children respond first to things in periphery before centrally.
· Children often have good motion detection. In fact moving objects are easier to see than stationary ones. In addition, children in motion may be more aware of objects in the environment.
· Color perception usually intact. Yellow, orange, purple and red are easily perceived. Use primary colors rather than pastels. Colors easier to perceive than shapes.
· Pupillary response is usually fine although students on seizure medications may have a sluggish response.
· Depth perception, concepts of space and distance are often difficult. Children may have difficulty reaching for or placing objects accurately. They may be aware of distance objects but not able to recognize them.
· Some children improve visually with age while others may not.
· Children have difficulty discriminating foreground/background or figure ground; therefore clothing under a clear wheelchair tray can be confusing.
· Staff clothing can be visually distracting; clothing should be plain not patterned.
· Visual gaze will increase when the child feels in control of the situation.
· Children may get close to things not because they are myopic (near sighted)-but to block out other things by getting close, so that the object fills the entire visual field.
· The midline might be a stressful area to work in – watch the child to see if this is a problem.
· Many CVI students are found to be farsighted.
· The children may close their eyes while listening because too much stimuli is offered. There may be too many activities and the children can do only one thing at time.
Tuesday, April 12, 2011
- Most children have overall neurological difficulties
- May have seizures
- Consistently inconsistent
- Cortically Blind-don’t always have intact memories damage to memory bank (oxygen deprivation) - Cognitive evaluation of experiences is based on memory
· Children may have central auditory dysfunction –therefore no symbolic language
- Integration of sensory information is disrupted - child needs processing time to receive sensory information and output response
- Pervasive brain damage
- Disorganized, visual information maybe received though may not be organized or understood by the brain.
- Children with CVI often don’t demonstrate habituation, a neurological process by which active attention to a stimulus decreases over repeated trials. Children with CVI can’t sort out what is most important; therefore some may always be overly responsive.
- Often respond and react rather than interact.
- Arousal level can be the opposite of what it appears to be. i.e. the child may fall asleep because he is overly aroused.
- Has an expressionless face as if staring right through you
- Has difficulty sorting out important vs. unimportant information.
- Has difficulty anticipating what will be happening.
- First response to experiences is emotional or reactive
· Fatigue is often present because of overload and inability to screen incoming sensory information
- When reaching for objects, students with CVI often look at object, turn eye gaze away and then reach with hand. Difficulty organizing visual information and reacting motorically.
- If life is perceived as stressful, frustrating, or confusing by the child a physical response may occur i.e.: increased heart beat, slowed digestion. If the child is always on chronic alert the immune system can break down